Q235 Steel Q235A Q235B Q235C Q235D Equivalent, Properties, Specification, Composition

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Q235 Steel (Q235A Q235B Q235C Q235D)

Q235 steel is a plain carbon structural steel which is widely used in China, Q235 material in Chinese standard GB/T 700 is divided into 4 quality grades: Q235A, Q235B, Q235C and Q235D; Density of this steel is 7.85 g/cm3, tensile strength is 370-500 MPa; yield strength is 235 MPa (data are for steel bar or steel plate diameter ≤ 16mm). Since it’s mild steel, it is used directly without heat treatment.

Meaning and Designation

“Q” is the first letter of Chinese spelling of “Qu Fu Dian”, which means Yield Point.

“235” refers to the minimum yield strength 235 MPa tested with steel diameter ≤ 16mm.

Features and Applications

Q235 steel has good plasticity, toughness and weldability, as well as a certain strength, good cold bending performance. Q235 material is usually rolled into wire rod or round steel, square steel, flat steel, angle steel, I beam, channel steel, other sections and steel plates. These products are widely used in construction and engineering welded structures, to make steel bars or build factory buildings, high voltage transmission towers, bridges, vehicles, boilers, containers, etc., and also used as a mechanical part with less demanding performance such as less stressed rods, connecting rods, screws, nuts, ferrules, brackets, and stands, etc.

Steel wire rod made from Q235 steel
Steel wire rod made from Q235 steel in accordance with “GB/T 701 – Hot rolled carbon steel wire rods”

Data Sheet and Specification

The following tables show Q235A, Q235B, Q235C and Q235D steel datasheet and specification, including chemical composition, physical and mechanical properties, etc.

Q235A, Q235B, Q235C, Q235D Steel Chemical Composition

The table below lists Q235 material chemical composition based on heat analysis.

Chemical Composition (heat analysis), %, ≤
Steel Grade Quality Grade C Si Mn P S Deoxidation Method
Q235 Q235A 0.22 0.35 1.40 0.045 0.050 Rimmed / Killed
Q235B 0.20 0.35 1.40 0.045 0.045 Rimmed / Killed
Q235C 0.17 0.35 1.40 0.040 0.040 Killed
Q235D 0.17 0.35 1.40 0.035 0.035 Exceptionally Killed

Q235 Steel Properties

The following list summarizes Q235 steel properties including physical and mechanical properties.

Physical Properties

Notes:

  • 10-6·K-1 = 10-6/K
  • 1 Ω·mm²/m = 1 μΩ·m
  • 1 g/cm3 = 1 kg/dm3 = 1000 kg/m3
  • 1 GPa = 1 kN/mm2
  • 1 MPa = 1 N/mm2
Physical Properties
Density, g/cm3 7.85
Melting point, ℃ about 1493
Specific heat capacity, J/(Kg·K) 470 at 20 ℃
Electrical resistivity, μΩ·m about 0,15 (20 ℃)
Elastic modulus, GPa (kN/mm2) 200
Thermal conductivity, (W/m·K) 53-49 (0-100 ℃)
Coefficient of thermal expansion, (10-6/K) 11.3-11.6 (20 ℃)
Young’s modulus, GPa (kN/mm2) 200
Poisson’s ratio 0.24-0.28

Mechanical Properties

Yield strength and tensile strength are listed in the table below.

1 MPa = 1 N/mm2

Yield Strength (MPa, ≥); Thickness or Dia. (d) mm Tensile Strength (MPa)
Steel Grade Quality d≤16 16< d ≤40 40< d ≤100 100< d ≤150 150< d ≤200 d≤100
Q235 Q235A 235 225 215 195 185 370-500
Q235B
Q235C
Q235D

Minimum Elongation

Elongation (≥ %); Thickness or Dia. (d) mm
Steel Grade d≤40 40< d ≤60 60< d ≤100 100< d ≤150 150< d ≤200
Q235 26 25 24 22 21

Minimum Charpy Impact

Charpy impact (V notch)
Steel Grade Quality Temp. ℃ Impact energy (longitudinal, ≥ J)
Q235 Q235A
Q235B +20 27
Q235C 0
Q235D -20

Bending Test Results of Q235 Material

Cold Bending Test 180° (B=2a)
Grade Sample Orientation Steel Dia. (d) of Curve Center
d≤ 60mm 60<d≤100 mm
Q235 Vertical a 2a
Horizontal 1.5a 2.5a

B= Sample Steel Width; a= Sample Diameter or Thickness.

Steel rolled with Q195 and Q235B grade rimmed steel, the thickness or diameter of which is not more than 25mm.

Q235 Steel Equivalent

S235JRG2 and S235J2G4 are old designations in EN 10025:1993, S235JRG2 is replaced by the new designation S235JR (1.0038), and S235J2G4 replaced by S235J2 (1.0117) in EN 10025-2 since 2004.

You may be interested in Q235 vs A36, SS400, S235JR & E250 Steel;

Q235 vs Q195, Q215 and Q275 Steel

Q235 material equivalent to ASTM, ISO, European EN (German DIN EN, British BS EN, French NF EN…), Japanese JIS standard.

Note: Q235 India equivalent is E250 in Indian standard IS 2062.

Q235 steel equivalent grades
China US European Union Britain (UK) Japan ISO
Standard Grade Standard Grade Standard Grade (Steel Number) Standard Grade (Steel Number) Standard Grade Standard Grade
GB/T 700 Q235A ASTM A36/A36M;
ASTM A283/A283M
A36 steel;
Grade D
BS 970 Prat 1 080A15 JIS G 3101;
JIS G 3106
SS400; SM400A
GB/T 700 Q235B ASTM A36;
ASTM A283/A283M
A36;
Grade D
DIN EN 10025-2 S235JR (1.0038) BS EN 10025-2 S235JR
(1.0038)
JIS G3101;
JIS G3106
SS400; SM400A
GB/T 700 Q235C ASTM A36;
ASTM A283/A283M;
ASTM A573/A573M
A36;
Grade D;
Grade 58
DIN EN 10025-2 S235J0 (1.0114) BS EN 10025-2 S235J0 (1.0114) JIS G3106 SM400A,
SM400B
ISO 630-2 S235B
GB/T 700 Q235D ASTM A36;
ASTM A283M
A36;
Grade D
DIN EN 10025-2 S235J0 (1.0114); S235J2 (1.0117) BS EN 10025-2 S235J0 (1.0114); S235J2 (1.0117) JIS G3106 SM400A ISO 630-2 S235B, S235C

Tags: Q235A steel, Q235B steel, Q235C steel, Q235D steel

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2 Comments
  1. A.Jayasundaram says

    We need H BEAM PURCHASE AS PER BIS STAND EQUIVALENT TO CHINA GRADES

  2. Yalda Dehqan nzhad says

    Hello, I offer you my service , I am a master degree’s student . I have used from Q235B steel with thickness of 10 mm in the simulation of my model . Now I need the stress strain curve of this steel , please sent it to me .

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