Q235 Steel Q235A Q235B Q235C Q235D Equivalent, Properties, Specification, Composition

Q235 Steel (Q235A Q235B Q235C Q235D)

Q235 steel is a plain carbon structural steel which is widely used in China. Q235 material in Chinese standard GB/T 700 is divided into 4 quality grades: Q235A, Q235B, Q235C and Q235D; Density of this steel is 7.85 g/cm3 (0.284 lb/in3), tensile strength is 370-500 MPa (54-73 ksi); yield strength is 235 MPa (34 ksi) for steel bar diameter or plate thickness ≤ 16mm. Since it is mild steel, the material is commonly used directly without heat treatment. Q235 material has moderate strength, in the case of higher strength requirements, Q275 or high-strength low alloy structural steel Q355 (former Q345) can be selected.

Meaning and Designation

“Q” is the first letter of Chinese spelling of “Qufu dian”, which means Yield Point.

“235” refers to the minimum yield strength 235 MPa tested with steel bar diameter or plate thickness ≤ 16mm.

A, B, C and D represent quality grades.

Features and Applications

Q235 steel has good plasticity, toughness and weldability, as well as a moderate strength, good cold bending performance. Q235 material is commonly rolled into wire rod or round steel, square steel, flat steel, angle steel, I beam, channel steel, other sections and steel plates. These products are widely used in construction and engineering welded structures, to make steel bars or build factory buildings, high voltage transmission towers, bridges, vehicles, boilers, containers, etc., and also used as a mechanical part with less demanding performance such as less stressed rods, connecting rods, screws, nuts, ferrules, brackets, and stands, etc.

Steel wire rod made from Q235 steel
Steel wire rod made from Q235 steel in accordance with “GB/T 701 – Hot rolled carbon steel wire rods”

Q235 Steel Properties (Data Sheet and Specification)

The following tables show Q235 steel properties, datasheet and specification, including Q235A, Q235B, Q235C and Q235D steel, including chemical composition, physical and mechanical properties, etc.

Q235A, Q235B, Q235C, Q235D Steel Chemical Composition

The table below lists Q235 material chemical composition based on heat analysis.

Chemical Composition (heat analysis), %, ≤
Steel Grade Quality Grade C Si Mn P S Deoxidation Method
Q235 Q235A 0.22 0.35 1.40 0.045 0.050 Rimmed / Killed
Q235B 0.20 0.35 1.40 0.045 0.045 Rimmed / Killed
Q235C 0.17 0.35 1.40 0.040 0.040 Killed
Q235D 0.17 0.35 1.40 0.035 0.035 Exceptionally Killed

Note: Q235B carbon content C can be ≤0.22% by agreement.

Physical Properties


  • 10-6·K-1 = 10-6/K
  • 1 Ω·mm²/m = 1 μΩ·m
  • 1 g/cm3 = 1 kg/dm3 = 1000 kg/m3
  • 1 GPa = 1 kN/mm2
  • 1 MPa = 1 N/mm2
Physical Properties
Density, g/cm3 (lb/in3) 7.85 (0.284)
Melting point, °C (°F) 1450-1530 (2640-2800)
Specific heat capacity, J/(Kg·K) 470 at 20 °C (68 °F)
Electrical resistivity, μΩ·m about 0.15 (20 °C)
Elastic modulus, GPa (ksi) 200 (29 x 103)
Thermal conductivity, (W/m·K) 53-49 (0-100 °C)
Coefficient of thermal expansion, (10-6/K) 11.3-11.6 at 20-100 °C (68-212 °F)
Young’s modulus, GPa (ksi) 200 (29 x 103)
Poisson’s ratio 0.24-0.28

Mechanical Properties

Yield strength and tensile strength are listed in the table below.

1 MPa = 1 N/mm2

Yield Strength (MPa, ≥); Thickness or Dia. (d) mm Tensile Strength (MPa)
Steel Grade Quality d≤16 16< d ≤40 40< d ≤100 100< d ≤150 150< d ≤200 d≤100
Q235 Q235A 235 225 215 195 185 370-500

Minimum Elongation

Elongation (≥ %); Thickness or Dia. (d) mm
Steel Grade d≤40 40< d ≤60 60< d ≤100 100< d ≤150 150< d ≤200
Q235 26 25 24 22 21

Minimum Charpy Impact

Charpy impact (V notch)
Steel Grade Quality Temperature. °C Impact energy (longitudinal, ≥ J)
Q235 Q235A
Q235B +20 27
Q235C 0
Q235D -20

Bending Test Results of Q235 Material

Cold Bending Test 180° (B=2a)
Grade Sample Orientation Steel Dia. (d) of Curve Center
d≤ 60mm 60<d≤100 mm
Q235 Vertical a 2a
Horizontal 1.5a 2.5a

B= Sample Steel Width; a= Sample Diameter or Thickness.

Steel rolled with Q195 and Q235B grade rimmed steel, the thickness or diameter of which is not more than 25mm.

Q235 Steel Equivalent Material

Q235 steel equivalent ASTM, European EN (German DIN EN, British BS EN, French NF EN…), Australian AS/NZS, Japanese JIS, and Indian standard are listed in the table below.

Q235 Steel Equivalent Grades
Chinese US European Union Britain (UK) Australian Japan Indian ISO
Standard Grade Standard Grade Standard Grade (Steel Number) Standard Grade (Steel Number) Standard Grade Standard Grade Standard Grade Standard Grade
GB/T 700 Q235A BS 970 Prat 1 080A15 JIS G 3101;
JIS G 3106
SS400; SM400A IS 2062 E250A
GB/T 700 Q235B ASTM A36;
ASTM A283/A283M
Grade D
EN 10025-2 S235JR (1.0038) BS EN 10025-2 S235JR
AS/NZS 3678 250 JIS G3101;
JIS G3106
SS400; SM400A IS 2062 E250B
GB/T 700 Q235C ASTM A36;
ASTM A283/A283M;
ASTM A573/A573M
Grade D;
Grade 58
EN 10025-2 S235J0 (1.0114) BS EN 10025-2 S235J0 (1.0114) AS/NZS 3678 250L0 JIS G3106 SM400A,
IS2062 E250C ISO 630-2 S235B
GB/T 700 Q235D ASTM A36;
Grade D
EN 10025-2 S235J0 (1.0114); S235J2 (1.0117) BS EN 10025-2 S235J0 (1.0114); S235J2 (1.0117) AS/NZS 3678 250L20 JIS G3106 SM400A IS2062 E250 C ISO630-2 S235B, S235C


  • S235JRG2 and S235J2G4 are old designations in EN 10025:1993, S235JRG2 is replaced by the new designation S235JR (1.0038), and S235J2G4 replaced by S235J2 (1.0117) in EN 10025-2 since 2004.
  • Material Q235 australian equivalent is grade 250 in standard AS/NZS-3678; Indian equivalent is E250 in standard IS-2062.

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Tags: Q235A steel, Q235B steel, Q235C steel, Q235D steel

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