ASTM SAE AISI 1020 Steel
AISI 1020 steel is also known as C1020 steel in cold worked (cold rolled or cold drawn) condition. 1020 carbon steel is one of the most commonly used plain carbon steels, has good machinability and weldability. SAE AISI 1020 mild steel can be hot rolled or cold drawn, but it is usually in turned and polished or cold drawn conditions. Due to its low carbon content, it is resistant to induction hardening or flame hardening.
AISI SAE 1020 Steel Properties & Specification
The data sheet below lists SAE AISI 1020 steel properties including chemical composition, physical and mechanical properties, etc.
|AISI SAE 1020 Steel Chemical Composition (%)|
|AISI||C||Mn||P (≤)||S (≤)|
Melting point: 1515 °C (2760 °F)
Density of 1020 steel: 7.87 g/cm3 (0.0361 lbs/in3)
|Material 1020 thermal conductivity|
|Value (W/m·K)||Temperature, °C (°F)|
|Value (J/Kg·K)||Temperature, °C (°F)|
|Electrical Resistivity of 1020 Carbon Steel|
|Value (μΩ·m)||Temperature, °C (°F)|
|Coefficients of linear thermal expansion|
|Value (10-6/K)||Temperature, °C (°F)||Treatment
Notes: 10-6/K = 10-6.K-1 = (µm/m)/°C
Mechanical Properties of SAE AISI 1020 Mild Steel
The following data shows that AISI SAE 1020 steel mechanical properties include yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, section reduction, and hardness in various conditions.
SAE AISI 1020 carbon steel Young’s modulus (modulus of elasticity) in the as-received condition: 186 GPa (27×106 psi).
|AISI 1020 steel mechanical properties in heat-treated or cold-worked conditions|
|AISI (UNS)||Tensile strength, MPa (ksi), ≥||Yield strength, MPa (ksi), ≥||Elongation in 50 mm, %, ≥||Reduction in area, %, ≥||Hardness (HB)||Processing, condition or treatment||Sample Size, mm (in.)|
|1020 (G10200)||380 (55)||205 (30)||25||50||111||Hot rolled||19-31.8 mm (0.75-1.25 in.)|
|420 (61)||350 (51)||15||41||121||Cold drawn|
|Mechanical properties in the hot-rolled, normalized, and annealed condition|
|AISI||Tensile strength, MPa (ksi), ≥||Yield strength, MPa (ksi), ≥||Elongation in 50 mm, %, ≥||Reduction in area, %, ≥||Hardness (HB)||Processing, condition or treatment||Austenitizing temperature, °C (°F)||Quenching agent||Izod impact strength, J, (ft·lbf)||Sample Size|
|1020||448 (65)||331 (48)||36||59||143||As-rolled||–||Oil||87 (64)||12.8 mm (0.505 in.) machined from 25.4 mm (1 in.) rounds.|
|441 (64)||346.5 (50.3)||35.8||68||131||Normalized||870 (1600)||Oil||118 (87)|
|394.7 (57.3)||295 (43)||36.5||66||111||Annealed||870 (1600)||Oil||123 (91)|
|Cyclic fatigue properties|
|UNS||Grade||Cyclic strength coefficient, MPa (ksi)||Fatigue strength coefficient, MPa (ksi)||Fatigue strength exponent||Fatigue ductility coefficient||Fatigue ductility exponent||Hardness (HB)|
|G10200||SAE 1020 steel||1205 (175)||850 (123)||-0.12||0.44||-0.51||108|
AISI SAE 1020 carbon steel machinability rating is 65 based on a machinability rating of 100% for 1212 steel.
SAE AISI 1020 Steel Heat Treatment
The heat treatment of SAE AISI 1020 mild steel including normalizing, annealing, austenitizing, etc.
Normalizing of AISI 1020
The typical normalizing temperature for SAE AISI 1020 mild steel is 915 °C (1675 °F).
Annealing of AISI 1020
Recommended temperature and cooling cycle for full annealing of small carbon steel forgings (size ≤ 3 in.):
Annealing temperature is 855-900 °C (1575-1650 °F), cooling cycle is from 855 °C (1575 °F) to 700 °C (1290 °F), furnace cooling speed at 28 °C/h (50 °F/h), Brinell hardness is 111-149 HB.
Reheating (austenitizing) temperatures for hardening of SAE 1020 steel is 760-790 °C (1400-1450 °F). Carburizing is commonly carried out at 900 to 925 °C (1650 to 1700 °F).
The surface hardening carburization temperature of 1020 carbon steel is 970-955 °C, and most of them are carried out in a mixed gas of methane and carrier gas. Hardening after carburizing is usually achieved by direct quenching from the carburizing temperature into water or brine.
Typical heat treatment for SAE 1020 case hardening
- Carbon temperature: 900-925 °C (1650-1700 °F), cooling method: water or caustic;
- Reheat temperature: 790 °C (1450 °F), cooling method: water or 3% sodium hydroxide;
- Carbonitriding temperature: 790-900 °C (1450-1650 °F), cooling method: oil;
- Temper temperature: 120-205 °C (250-400 °F), for stress relief and improving resistance to cracking (not mandatory).
Typical Forging Temperature
Typical forging temperature for AISI 1020 mild steel is 1290 °C (2350 °F).
AISI 1020 Carbon Steel Welding
The recommended preheat and interpass temperatures for AISI SAE C1020 steel:
For thickness ≤50mm (2 in.), the recommended preheat and interpass temperature is above -12 °C (for low hydrogen); and 38 °C for other than low hydrogen.
For thickness (t) 50< t ≤100, the recommended preheat and interpass temperature is 93 °C (for low hydrogen); and 150 °C (for other than low hydrogen).
Postweld heat treatment is optional, temperature is 590-675 °C (1100-1250 °F).
ASTM AISI SAE 1020 steel has many semi-finished products, such as square steel bars, flat steel bars, round steel bars, steel plates, which can be used to make truck, automotive and agricultural equipment parts such as axles, mechanical parts, cold head bolts, motor shafts, pump shafts, ratchet, light gear, gear drives, worm gear, spindle, seat bracket, crane-cable drum, motor-brake wheel, etc. And usually also made into steel channels, steel angles, I-beams and H-beams.
AISI SAE ASTM 1020 Steel Equivalent Material
SAE ASTM AISI 1020 carbon steel equivalent to European EN (Germany DIN EN, British BSI, French NF…), Japanese JISand Chinese GB standard.
|AISI SAE ASTM 1020 steel equivalent material|
|Standard||AISI (UNS)||Standard||Grade||Standard||Grade (Material Number)||Standard||Grade||Standard||Grade||Standard||Grade|
|DIN EN 10083-2;
DIN EN 10250-2
|GB/T 699||20 steel||JIS G4051||S20C|