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SAE AISI 1020 Steel Properties, C1020 Carbon Steel Yield Strength, Equivalent

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ASTM SAE AISI 1020 Steel

AISI 1020 steel is also known as C1020 steel in cold worked (cold rolled and cold drawn) condition. 1020 carbon steel is one of the most commonly used plain carbon steels, has good machinability and weldability. SAE AISI 1020 mild steel can be hot rolled or cold drawn, but it is usually in turned and polished or cold drawn conditions. Due to its low carbon content, it is resistant to induction hardening or flame hardening.


ASTM AISI SAE 1020 steel has many semi-finished products, such as square steel bars, flat steel bars, round steel bars, steel plates, which can be used to make truck, automotive and agricultural equipment parts such as axles, mechanical parts, cold head bolts, motor shafts, pump shafts, ratchet, light gear, gear drives, worm gear, spindle, seat bracket, crane-cable drum, motor-brake wheel, etc. And usually also made into steel channels, steel angles, I-beams and H-beams.

SAE AISI 1020 Steel Datasheet & Specification

The data sheet below lists SAE AISI 1020 steel properties and the chemical composition.

Chemical Composition

AISI SAE 1020 Steel Chemical Composition (%)
UNSSteel GradeCMnP (≤)S (≤)

AISI SAE 1020 Steel Properties

The table below shows that the AISI 1020 steel properties includes physical properties and mechanical properties.

Physical Properties

Melting point: 1515 °C (2760 °F)

Density of 1020 steel: 7.87 g/cm3

Material 1020 thermal conductivity
Value (W/m·K)Temperature, °C (°F)
51.90 (32)
51.0100 (212)
48.9200 (392)
Specific Heat of AISI 1020 Carbon Steel
Value (J/Kg·K)Temperature, °C (°F)
48650-100 (122-212)
519150-200 (302-392)
599350-400 (662-752)
Electrical Resistivity of AISI SAE 1020 Carbon Steel
Value (μΩ·m)Temperature, °C (°F)
0.1590 (32)
0.219100 (212)
0.292200 (392)
AISI SAE 1020 coefficients of linear thermal expansion
Value (10-6/K)Temperature, °C (°F)Treatment
or condition
11.720-100 (68-212)Annealed
12.120-200 (68-392)
12.820-300 (68-572)
13.420-400 (68-752)
13.920-500 (68-932)
14.420-600 (68-1112)
14.820-700 (68-1292)

Notes: 10-6/K = 10-6.K-1 = (µm/m)/°C

Mechanical Properties of SAE AISI 1020 Mild Steel

The following data shows that AISI SAE 1020 steel mechanical properties include yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, section reduction, and hardness in various conditions.

SAE AISI 1020 steel Young’s modulus (modulus of elasticity) in the as-received condition: 186 GPa (27×106 psi).

AISI 1020 steel mechanical properties in heat-treated or cold-worked conditions
Steel (UNS)Tensile strength, MPa (ksi)Yield strength, MPa (ksi)Elongation in 50 mm, %Reduction in area, %Hardness (HB)Processing, condition or treatmentSample Size, mm (in.)
1020 (G10200)380 (55)205 (30)2550111Hot rolled19-31.8 mm (0.75-1.25 in.)
420 (61)350 (51)1541121Cold drawn
ASTM AISI SAE 1020 steel mechanical properties in the hot-rolled, normalized, and annealed condition
UNSGradeTensile strength, MPa (ksi)Yield strength, MPa (ksi)Elongation in 50 mm, %Reduction in area, %Hardness (HB)Processing, condition or treatmentAustenitizing temperature, °C (°F)Quenching agentIzod impact strength, J, (ft·lbf)Sample Size
G102001020448 (65)331 (48)3659143As-rolledOil87 (64)12.8 mm (0.505 in.) machined from 25.4 mm (1 in.) rounds.
441 (64)346.5 (50.3)35.868131Normalized870 (1600)Oil118 (87)
394.7 (57.3)295 (43)36.566111Annealed870 (1600)Oil123 (91)
Cyclic fatigue properties
UNSGradeCyclic strength coefficient, MPa (ksi)Fatigue strength coefficient, MPa (ksi)Fatigue strength exponentFatigue ductility coefficientFatigue ductility exponentHardness (HB)
G10200SAE 1020 steel1205 (175)850 (123)-0.120.44-0.51108


AISI SAE 1020 carbon steel machinability rating is 65 based on a machinability rating of 100% for 1212 steel.

SAE AISI 1020 Steel Heat Treatment

The heat treatment of SAE AISI 1020 mild steel including normalizing, annealing, austenitizing, etc.

Normalizing of AISI 1020

The typical normalizing temperature for SAE AISI 1020 mild steel is 915 °C (1675 °F).

Annealing of AISI 1020

Recommended temperature and cooling cycle for full annealing of small carbon steel forgings (size ≤ 3 in.):

Annealing temperature is 855-900 °C (1575-1650 °F), cooling cycle is from 855 °C (1575 °F) to 700 °C (1290 °F), furnace cooling speed at 28 °C/h (50 °F/h), Brinell hardness is 111-149 HB.

Reheating (Austenitizing)

Reheating (austenitizing) temperatures for hardening of SAE 1020 steel is 760-790 °C (1400-1450 °F). Carburizing is commonly carried out at 900 to 925 °C (1650 to 1700 °F).

Case Hardening

The surface hardening carburization temperature of 1020 carbon steel is 970-955 °C, and most of them are carried out in a mixed gas of methane and carrier gas. Hardening after carburizing is usually achieved by direct quenching from the carburizing temperature into water or brine.

Typical heat treatment for SAE 1020 case hardening

  • Carbon temperature: 900-925 °C (1650-1700 °F), cooling method: water or caustic;
  • Reheat temperature: 790 °C (1450 °F), cooling method: water or 3% sodium hydroxide;
  • Carbonitriding temperature: 790-900 °C (1450-1650 °F), cooling method: oil;
  • Temper temperature: 120-205 °C (250-400 °F), for stress relief and improving resistance to cracking (not mandatory).

Typical Forging Temperature

Typical forging temperature for AISI 1020 mild steel is 1290 °C (2350 °F).

AISI 1020 Carbon Steel Welding

The recommended preheat and interpass temperatures for AISI SAE C1020 steel:

For thickness ≤50mm (2 in.), the recommended preheat and interpass temperature is above -12 °C (for low hydrogen); and 38 °C for other than low hydrogen.

For thickness (t) 50< t ≤100, the recommended preheat and interpass temperature is 93 °C (for low hydrogen); and 150 °C (for other than low hydrogen).

Postweld heat treatment is optional, temperature is 590-675 °C (1100-1250 °F).

AISI SAE ASTM 1020 Steel Equivalent Grade

SAE ASTM AISI 1020 carbon steel equivalent to European EN (Germany DIN EN, British BSI, French NF…), Japanese JISand Chinese GB standard.

AISI SAE ASTM 1020 steel equivalent material
StandardGrade (UNS)StandardGradeStandardGrade (Steel Number)StandardGradeStandardGradeStandardGrade
1020 (G10200)AMS5032D; 5045E; 5046DIN EN 10083-2; DIN EN 10250-2C22E (1.1151); C22 (1.0402)GB/T 69920 steelJIS G4051S20C

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