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SAE AISI 1095 Steel, High Carbon Steel Heat Treat, Properties & Hardness

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AISI 1095 Steel

SAE AISI 1095 steel is one of the most widely used 10 series steels, with good performance and low cost, with appropriate toughness and wear resistance, but poor corrosion resistance.

1095 Carbon Steel Applications

AISI SAE 1095 carbon steel can be made into steel billets, steel powder, which can be used as tool steel, blade steel, spring steel. 1095 high carbon steel uses mainly include chef knife, kitchen knife, pocket knife, mower knives, Bowie knife, hunting knife, doctor blade, wear parts, various springs, plow beams, ploughshares, scraper blades, and brake discs.

Datasheet & Specification

Below is material AISI 1095 steel datasheet and specification including chemical composition, mechanical properties, heat treat, density, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, yield strength, hardness, etc.

AISI SAE 1095 Chemical Composition

The table below lists AISI 1095 carbon steel chemical composition.

AISI 1095 Chemical Composition (%)
ASTMAISI Type (UNS)CMnP (≤)S (≤)
ASTM A29/A29M1095 (UNS G10950)0.90-1.030.30-0.500.0400.050

AISI 1095 Mechanical Properties

SAE AISI 1095 steel mechanical properties are given in the table below.

Steel (UNS)Tensile strength (Mpa)Yield strength (Mpa)Elongation in 50 mm, %Reduction in area, %Hardness (HB)Processing, condition or treatment
AISI 1095 (UNS G10950)8304601025248Hot rolled
6805201040197Spheroidized annealed cold drawn
6553801321192Annealed at 790 °C (1450 °F)
10155059.514293Normalized at 900 °C (1650 °F)

Cold-rolled strip used for cold formed springs

  • Minimum tensile strength (Tempered), MPa (ksi): 1240-2340 (180-340);
  • Modulus of elasticity, GPa (ksi): 210 (30,000)
  • Annealed Hardness (HRB): 88

AISI SAE 1095 Physical Properties

Notes: 10-6/K = 10-6.K-1 = (µm/m)/°C

1095 carbon steel coefficients of linear thermal expansion
Value (10-6/K)Temperature, °C (°F)Treatment
or condition
11.420-100 (68-212)Annealed
13.00-100 (32-212)Hardened
14.620-650 (68-1200)
Material 1095 thermal conductivity
Value (W/m·K)Temperature, °C (°F)
46.7100 (212)
Specific Heat of AISI 1095 High Carbon Steel
Value (J/Kg·K)Temperature, °C (°F)
46120-100 (68-212)
Electrical Resistivity of AISI SAE 1095 Steel
Value (μΩ·m)Temperature, °C (°F)
0.1820 (68)

SAE 1095 Steel Heat Treatment

The following table shows 1095 steel heat treat and rockwell hardness.

Transformation Temperature

Approximate Ac 1 , Ac 3 , Ar 1 , and Ar 3 of 1095 high carbon steel
AISI gradeTransformationTemperatures, °C (°F)Brinell hardness HB, after air cool
1095Ac1730 (1340)321-255
Ac3770 (1415)
Ar3725 (1340)
Ar1700 (1290)
Heating or cooling at 28 °C (58 °F)/h
1095 Heat Treat Temperature
SteelAustenitizing temperature for direct hardening, °C (°F)Normalizing temperature, °C (°F)Full annealing temperature, °C (°F)
1095790-815 (1450–1500)845-900 (1550-1650)790-830 (1450-1525)

Notes: The austenitizing of 1095 steel is commonly used on parts where induction hardening is employed, the quenching medium is water, brine or oil. If oil quenching is used, the alternatively austenitizing temperature may be 815-870 °C (1500-1600 °F).


1095 steel normalizing temperature range is 845-900 °C (1550-1650 °F), typically normalized at 845 °C (1550 °F), and should be cooled in still air.

Full Annealing for Small Steel Forgings

Recommended temperatures and cooling cycles for full annealing of small carbon steel forgings
Steel forgingFull annealing temperature, °C (°F)Cooling cycle, °C (°F)Brinell hardness HB
1095790-830 (1450-1525)790 to 655 (1450-1215)167-229

Notes: The data are for forgings with a maximum section thickness of 75 mm (3 in.). For parts with a maximum thickness of 25 mm (1 in.), the time at temperature is usually at least 1 hour; for each additional thickness of 25 mm, add 0.5 h. The furnace cooling rate is 28 °C/h (50 °F/h).

Hardening of 1095 High Carbon Steel

Heat to 800 °C (1475 °F). Quench in water or brine. The oil quenching section below 4.75 mm (3/16 in.) is used for hardening. The hardness after quenching is as high as 66 HRC. The maximum hardness can be adjusted downwards by tempering.


1095 high carbon steel responds well to austempering (bainite hardening). Austenitize at 800 °C (1475 °F). Quench in a agitated molten salt bath at 315 °C (600 °F). Hold for 2 hours and cool in air.

Direct Hardening

Typical heat treatments for direct hardening. Temper to desired hardness
SAE steelNormalizing temperature, °C (°F)Annealing temperature, °C (°F)Hardening temperature, °C (°F)Quenching medium
1095845-900 (1550-1650)760-815 (1400-1500)855-885 (1575-1625)Water or oil

Notes: Spherical structures are usually used for processing purposes and should be cooled or isothermally transformed very slowly to produce the desired structure.


Typical hardnesses of 1095 carbon steel after tempering for 2 hours at different temperatures
GradeTemperature, °C (°F)Rockwell hardness, HRCHeat treatment
1095 high carbon steel, carbon content: 0.95%205 (400)58 HRCNormalized at 885 °C (1625 °F), water quenched from 800-815 °C (1475-1550 °F); average dew point, 7 °C (45 °F)
260 (500)57 HRC
315 (600)52 HRC
370 (700)47 HRC
425 (800)43 HRC
480 (900)42 HRC
540 (1000)41 HRC
595 (1100)40 HRC
650 (1200)33 HRC


Typical forging temperature for 1095 carbon steel is 1175 °C (2150 °F).

Machinability of 1095 Carbon Steel

The machinability of 1095 steel (spheroidized, then cold drawn) is 45% based on a machinability rating of 100% for 1212 steel.

1095 Steel Equivalent Grade

AISI 1095 high carbon steel equivalent to European EN (Germany DIN EN, British BSI, French NF…), Chinese GB and Japanese JIS standard.


  • DIN 17350: Tool steels, has been replaced by EN ISO 4957.
  • GB/T 1298: Carbon tool steels
  • JIS G4401: Carbon tool steels
  • DIN 17222: Cold rolled steel strips for springs
AISI 1095 equivalent material
USEuropean UnionGermanyChinaJapanISO
StandardGrade (UNS)StandardGradeStandardGrade (Steel Number)StandardGrade (Steel Number)StandardGradeStandardGradeStandardGrade (Steel Number)
1095 (UNS G10950)AMS5121F, 5122F, 5132GEN ISO 4957C105U (1.1545)DIN 17350; DIN 17222C105W1 (1.1545); Ck101 (1.1274)GB/T 1298, GB/T 3278, GB/T 5952T10JIS G4401SK105ISO 4957C105U (1.1545)

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