AISI 316L Stainless Steel (UNS S31603)
AISI 316L stainless steel is a modified ultra-low carbon Cr-Ni-Mo series austenitic stainless steel based on AISI 316. It is recommended for parts that cannot be annealed after welding in certain corrosive environments. The addition of molybdenum can provide pitting resistance in phosphoric acid and acetic acid and dilute chloride solutions and corrosion resistance in sulfurous acid. SS316L is resistant to carbide precipitation in the temperature range of 425-870 °C (800-1600 °F), so normal welding can be performed without reducing corrosion resistance. However, when it is heated and kept in the sensitization temperature range for a long time during use, a large amount of carbides will precipitate, so it is usually recommended to use it below 425 °C (800 °F).
Type 316L Stainless Steel Properties
Type 316L stainless steel density is 0.289 lb/in3 (8.0 g/cm3); melting point is 1375-1400 °C (2500-2550 °F); 0.2% yield strength is minimum 25 ksi (170 MPa) in annealed and hot finished condition, minimum 45 ksi (310 MPa) in annealed and cold finished condition; Minimum tensile strength is 70 ksi (485 MPa) in annealed and hot finished condition, ≥ 90 ksi (620 MPa) in annealed and cold finished condition; Maximum Brinell hardness is 217 HB, Maximum Rockwell hardness is 90 HRBW; Thermal conductivity is 12.1 W/m·K at 20 °C (68 °F), 16.3 W/m·K at 100 °C (212 °F).
|316L Stainless Steel Composition, %|
|ASTM Standard||AISI Type (UNS)||C, ≤||Si, ≤||Mn, ≤||P, ≤||S, ≤||Cr||Ni||Mo||N, ≤|
|ASTM A276/A276M||316L (S31603)||0.03||1.00||2.00||0.045||0.030||16.0-18.0||10.0-14.0||2.00-3.00||–|
|ASTM A240/A240M||316L (S31603)||0.03||0.75||2.00||0.045||0.030||16.0-18.0||10.0-14.0||2.00-3.00||0.10|
Grade 316L stainless steel physical properties are listed in the table below such as density, melting point, specific heat, electrical resistivity, elastic modulus (modulus of elasticity), thermal conductivity, etc.
- 10-6·K-1 = 10-6/K
- 1 Ω·mm²/m = 1 μΩ·m
- 1 g/cm3 = 1 kg/dm3 = 1000 kg/m3
- 1 GPa = 1 kN/mm2
- 1 MPa = 1 N/mm2
|AISI 316L Physical Properties||Metric||Imperial|
|Density||8.0 g/cm3||0.289 lb/in3|
|Melting point||1375-1400 °C||2500-2550 °F|
|Specific heat capacity||500 J/kg·K at 20 °C||0.12 Btu/lb ·°F at 68 °F|
|Electrical resistivity||0.74 μΩ·m at 20 °C||29.13 μΩ·in. at 68 °F|
|Magnetic permeability||1.01 (Approximate)||–|
|Elastic modulus (Modulus of Elasticity)||193 GPa||28 x 103 ksi|
|Thermal conductivity||14.0-15.9 W/m·K||8.09-9.19 Btu/ft·h·°F|
The following tables list AISI 316L grade stainless steel mechanical properties such as yield strength, tensile strength, elongation and hardness, etc.
|AISI 316L Mechanical Properties|
|ASTM||AISI Type||Tensile strength, MPa (ksi), ≥||0.2% Yield strength, MPa (ksi), ≥||Elongation in 50 mm (2 in.), %, ≥||Reduction of Area, %, ≥||Brinell Hardness (HBW), ≤||Rockwell Hardness (HRBW), ≤||Product forms||Conditions|
|ASTM A240/A240M||316L (UNS S31603)||485 (70)||170 (25)||40||–||217||95||Plate, Sheet, and Strip|
|ASTM A276/A276M||485 (70)||170 (25)||40||50||–||–||Bars and Shapes||Annealed, Hot finished|
|620 (90)||310 (45)||30||40||–||–||Annealed, Cold finished, Dia ≤ 12.7 mm (0.5 in.)|
|485 (70)||170 (25)||30||40||–||–||Annealed, Cold finished, Dia > 12.7 mm (0.5 in.)|
|ASTM A580/A580M||485 (70)||170 (25)||35||50||–||–||Wire||Annealed|
|620 (90)||310 (45)||30||40||–||–||Wire||Cold finished|
|ASTM A473/A473M||450 (65)||170 (25)||40||50||–||–||Forgings||Annealed|
AISI 316L Stainless Steel Equivalent
AISI 316L stainless steel equivalent materials are listed in the table below, including European EN (Germany DIN, British BSI, French NF…), ISO, Japanese JIS and Chinese GB standard (For reference).
|AISI 316L equivalent grade|
|316L (UNS S31603)||X2CrNiMo17-12-2 (Material number: 1.4404)||X5CrNiMo17-12-2 (ISO number: 4404-316-03-I)||SUS316L||00Cr17Ni14Mo2; 022Cr17Ni12Mo2 (New name)|