Surface Finish: 1U 1C 1E 1D 1X 1G 2A 2H 2C 2D 2E 2B 2G 2P 2R 2Q

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Type of surface finish and process route of semi-finished products, rods and wires, bars and sections (EN 10088-3)

ConditionsRecommended use and observations
EN 10088-3SymbolSurface finishType of process route
Hot formed1UCovered with scale (spot ground if necessary). Not free of surface imperfections.Hot formed, not heat treated, not descaled.Suitable for products to be further hot formed.
1CHot formed, heat treated , not descaled.Geeignet für weiterzuverarbeitende Erzeugnisse (warm oder kalt).
1ELargely free of scale (but some black spots may remain). Not free of surface imperfections.Hot formed, heat treated, mechanically descaledSuitable for products to be further processed (hot or cold).
1DFree of scale (spot ground if necessary). Not free of surface imperfections.Hot formed, heat treated, pickled, coated (optional).Products used in their present condition or to be further processed (hot or cold).
1XFree of scale (but some marks left from machining may remain). Not free of surface imperfections.Hot formed, heat treated, rough machined
1GAppearance bright, but not uniform, Free of surface defects.Hot formed, heat treated, descaled, rough machined g or shaved in the case of rod. Finishing by removal of materialSuitable for severe applications (extrusion and/or cold or hot heading). Surface roughness can be specified.
Cold
processed
2HSmooth and matt or bright. Not necessarily polished. Not free of surface imperfectionsFinishes 1 E, 1 D or 1 X, cold processed, coated (optional).In products formed by cold drawing without subsequent heat treatment, the tensile strength is substantially increased, particularly in austenitic materials, depending on the degree of cold processing. The surface hardness may be higher than the centre hardness.
2DSmooth and matt or bright. Not free of surface imperfectionsFinish 2H, heat treated,pickled and skin-passed (optional), coated (optional).This finish allows the restoration of the mechanical properties after cold processing. Products with good ductility (extrusion) and specific magnetic properties.
2BSmooth, uniform and bright. Free of surface imperfections.Finishes 1E, 1D or 1X, cold processed, mechanically smoothed.Products used in their present condition or intended for better finishing. In products formed by cold drawing without subsequent heat treatment, the tensile strength is substantially increased, particularly in austenitic materials, depending on the degree of cold processing. The surface hardness may be higher than the centre hardness.
2GSmooth, uniform and bright. Free of surface defects.Finishes 2H, 2D or 2B, centreless ground, mechanically smoothed (optional)Finish for close tolerances. Unless otherwise agreed the surface roughness shall be Ra ≤ 1,2.
2PSmoother and brighter than finish 2B or 2G. Free of surface defects.Finishes 2H, 2D, 2B or 2G, specular polishingProducts showing a well groomed surface appearance. Surface roughness shall be specified at the time of enquiry and order.

Type of process route and surface finish of sheet, plate and strip (EN 10088-2)

EN 10088-2Symbol (2)Type of process routeSurface finishNotes
Hot rolled1UHot rolled, not heat treated, not descaledCovered with rolling scaleSuitable for products which are to be further worked e.g. strip for rerolling.
1CHot rolled, heat treated, not descaledCovered with rolling scaleSuitable for parts which will be descaled or machined in subsequent production or for certain heat-resisting applications.
1EHot rolled, heat treated, mechanically descaled.Free of scaleThe type of mechanical descaling, e.g coarse grinding or shot blasting, depends on the steel grade and the product, and is left to the manufacturer’s discretion, unless otherwise agreed.
1DHot rolled, heat treated, pickled.Free of scaleUsually standard for most steel types to ensure good corrosion resistance; also common finish for further processing. It is permissible for grinding marks to be present. Not as smooth as 2D or 2B.
Cold rolled2HWork hardenedBrightCold worked to obtain higher strength level.
2CCold rolled, heat treated, not descaledSmooth with scale from heat treatmentSuitable for parts which will be descaled or machined in subsequent production or for certain heat-resisting applications.
2ECold rolled, heat treated, mechanically descaledFree of scaleUsually applied to steels with a scale which is very resistant to pickling solutions. May be followed by pickling. Surface roughness is depending on the mechanical descaling method and may differ if the surface is e.g. shot blasted or brushed.
2DCold rolled, heat treated, pickledSmoothFinish for good ductility, but not as smooth as 2B or 2R.
2BCold rolled, heat treated, pickled, skin passedSmoother than 2DMost common finish for most steel types to ensure good corrosion resistance, smoothness and flatness. Also common finish for further processing. Skin passing may be by tension levelling.
2ACold rolled, heat treated, bright-pickled, skin passedSmoother and more reflective than 2DTypical finish for ferritic grades when high reflectivity is desired.
2R (3)Cold rolled, bright annealedSmooth, bright, reflectiveSmoother and brighter than 2B. Also common finish for further processing.
2QCold rolled, hardened and tempered, scale freeFree of scaleEither hardened and tempered in a protective atmosphere or descaled after heat treatment.
Special
finishes
1G or 2GGround (4)See Footnote (5)Grade of grit or surface roughness can be specified. Unidirectional texture, not very reflective.
1J or 2JBrushed or dull polished (4)Smoother than ground. See FootnoteGrade of brush or polishing belt or surface roughness can be specified. Unidirectional texture, not very reflective.
1K or 2KSatin polish (4)See Footnote (5)Additional specific requirements to a “J” type finish, in order to achieve adequate corrosion resistance for marine and external architectural
applications. Transverse Ra < 0,5 μm with clean cut surface finish.
1P or 2PBright polished (4)See Footnote (5)Mechanical polishing. Process or surface roughness can be specified. Non-directional finish, reflective with high degree of image clarity.
2FCold rolled, heat treated, skin passed on roughened rollsUniform non-reflective matt surface.Heat treatment by bright annealing or by annealing and pickling.
1MPatternedDesign to be agreed; 2nd surface flatChequer plates used for floors.
2MA fine texture finish mainly used for architectural applications.
2WCorrugatedDesign to be agreedUsed to increase strength and/or for cosmetic effect.
2LColoured (2)Colour to be agreed
1S or 2SSurface coated (2)Coated with e.g. tin, aluminium.

Footnote:

  1. Not all process routes and surface finishes are available for all steels.
  2. First digit: 1 = hot rolled, 2 = cold rolled.
  3. May be skin passed.
  4. One surface only, unless specifically agreed at the time of enquiry and order.
  5. Within each finish description the surface characteristics can vary, and more specific requirements may need to be agreed between manufacturer and purchaser (e.g. grade of grit or surface roughness).

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