AL 6061-T6 Aluminum Alloy Properties, Density, Tensile & Yield Strength, Thermal Conductivity, Modulus of Elasticity, Welding

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6061 Aluminum Alloy (AL 6061-T6, 6061-T651, 6061-T4)

AL-6061 aluminum alloy is a general purpose structural alloy developed by Alcoa in 1935. The temper designations mainly have 6061-T4, T451, AL 6061-T6, 6061-T651, etc. It is one of the most widely used alloys. The main alloying elements are magnesium (Mg) and silicon (Si). The content of silicon and magnesium in this alloy is close to form magnesium silicide (Mg2Si), so it is a heat-treated forged alloy.

Because 6061 aluminium alloy is easy to extrude, it can provide a variety of product forms such as sheet, strip, plate, rod, rod, forgings, tubes, pipes, wires, extruded parts and structural shapes.

Aluminum 6061 has good corrosion resistance, mechanical properties, formability, weldability, and machinability. Generally suitable for medium to high strength requirements, and has good toughness. Applications range from food and beverage packaging, electronic products and home appliances, architectural decoration, transportation to aerospace components.

Notes: The abbreviations AL-6061 and AA6061 in this article are the same material. AL-Aluminum; AA-The Aluminum Association.

Aluminum Alloy 6061 Properties, Data Sheet & Specs.

The following tables and lists summarize 6061 aluminum properties, datasheet and specs including chemical composition, physical properties and mechanical properties, welding, hardness, machinability, heat treating, etc.

Chemical Composition

Aluminium 6061 chemical composition is listed in the following table.

AA-6061 Chemical Composition, %
ASTM, SAE AMS ANSI, Alloy (UNS) Si Fe, ≤ Cu Mn, ≤ Mg Cr Zn, ≤ Ti, ≤ Other Elements, Each (Total), ≤ Al
ASTM B209;
ASTM B211;
ASTM B221;
ASTM B210;
ASTM B308/B308M;
ASTM B308/B308M;
ASTM B308/B308M;
ASTM B241/B241M;
SAE AMS 4025;
SAE AMS 4026;
SAE AMS 4027;
SAE AMS 4117
6061 (UNS A96061) 0.4-0.8 0.7 0.15-0.40 0.15 0.8-1.2 0.04-0.35 0.25 0.15 0.05 (0.15) Remainder

Notes (different standards of 6061 aluminum):

  • ASTM B209: Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Sheet and Plate.
  • ASTM B211: Rolled or Cold Finished Bar, Rod, and Wire.
  • ASTM B221: Extruded Bars, Rods, Wire, Profiles and Tubes.
  • ASTM B210: Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Drawn Seamless Tubes.
  • ASTM B308/B308M: AL 6061-T6 Aluminum Structural Profiles.
  • ASTM B241/B241M: Seamless Pipe and Seamless Extruded Tube.
  • SAE AMS 4025: Sheet and Plate; Temper O; Annealed.
  • SAE AMS 4026: Sheet and Plate; Temper T4, T42, T451 (-T4 Sheet, -T451), Solution Heat Treated and Naturally Aged.
  • SAE AMS 4027: Sheet and Plate; Temper T6 Aluminum, T62, T651 (AL 6061-T6 Sheet, 6061T651 Plate) Solution and Precipitation Heat Treated.
  • SAE AMS 4117: Rolled or Cold Finished Bars, Rods, and Wire and Flash Welded Rings; (AL 6061-T6 Aluminum, 6061-T651).

AL-6061 Aluminum Properties

The tables below list 6061 aluminum properties, including physical and mechanical properties.

6061 Aluminum Physical Properties

6061 aluminum physical properties are given in the following lists, including density, melting point, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity electrical conductivity, and electrical resistance.

Notes:

  • 10-6·K-1 = 10-6/K = 1 μm/m·°C
  • 1 Ω·mm²/m = 1 μΩ·m
  • 1 g/cm3 = 1 kg/dm3 = 1000 kg/m3
  • 1 GPa = 1 kN/mm2
  • 1 MPa = 1 N/mm2

The melting range shown applies to wrought products with a thickness of 6.35 mm (1/4 in.) or greater.

Specific gravity: 2.7

AL-6061 Aluminum Physical Properties
ASTM Alloy and Temper Density, g/cm3 (lb/in.3) Melting point, °C (°F) Specific heat capacity, J/kg·K (Btu/lb ·°F) Coefficient of thermal expansion, 10-6/K (μin./in. ·°F) Thermal diffusivity, mm2/s Thermal conductivity, W/m·°C (Btu/ft · h ·°F) Electrical conductivity, Equal volume (Equal weight) % IACS Electrical resistivity, Ω·mm2/m (Ω· circ mil/ft)
ASTM B209;
ASTM B210;
ASTM B221;
ASTM B241;
ASTM B308;
SAE AMS 4027;
SAE AMS 4117;
SAE AMS 4025;
SAE AMS 4026
6061-TO 2.70 (0.098) 580-650 (1080-1205) 896 (0.214) at 20 °C (68 °F) 23.6 (13.1) at 20-100 ℃ (68-212 °F) 66 180 (1250) at 25 °C (77 °F) 47 (155) at 20 °C (68 °F) 0.0365 (22) at 20 °C (68 °F)
6061-T4 154 (1070) at 25 °C (77 °F) 40 (132) at 20 °C (68 °F) 0.043 (26) at 20 °C (68 °F)
AL 6061-T6 167 (1160) at 25 °C (77 °F) 43 (142) at 20 °C (68 °F) 0.040 (24) at 20 °C (68 °F)

Mechanical Properties

Aluminium 6061-T6 mechanical properties are listed in the following tables including yield strength (yield stress), ultimate tensile strength, shear strength, modulus of elasticity, young’s modulus, etc.

Aluminum 6061 Mechanical Properties, Part-1
Aluminum Alloy and Temper Ultimate Tensile strength, MPa (ksi) Yield strength, MPa (ksi) Elongation in 50 mm (2 in.), % Brinell Hardness, HB (500 kgf load 10 mm ball)
1.6mm (1/16 in.) thick specimen 12.5mm (1/2 in.) thick specimen
6061-O 125 (18) 55 (8) 25 27 30
6061-T4, T451 240 (35) 145 (21) 22 22 65
AL 6061-T6, T651 310 (45) 275 (40) 12 15 95
Alclad 6061-O 115 (17) 50 (7) 25
Alclad 6061-T4, T451 230 (33) 130 (19) 22
Alclad 6061-T6, T651 290 (42) 255 (37) 12
Aluminum 6061 Mechanical Properties, Part-2
Aluminum Alloy and Temper Ultimate shear strength, MPa (ksi) Modulus of elasticity, GPa (106 psi) Fatigue endurance limit, MPa (ksi)
6061-O 85 (12) 69 (10) 60 (9)
6061-T4, T451 165 (24) 69 (10) 95 (14)
AL 6061-T6, T651 205 (30) 69 (10) 95 (14)
Alclad 6061-O 75 (11) 69 (10)
Alclad 6061-T4, T451 150 (22) 69 (10)
Alclad 6061-T6, 6061-T651 185 (27) 69 (10)

Notes for modulus of elasticity: The average of the tensile (Young’s modulus) and compressive modulus. The compression modulus is about 2% higher than the tensile modulus (Young’s modulus).

Aluminum 6061 Typical Mechanical Properties at Different Temperatures
Alloy and temper Temperature, °C (°F) Ultimate tensile strength, MPa (ksi) 0.2% offset yield strength Elongation in 50 mm (2 in.), %,
AL 6061-T6,
6061-T651
-195 (-320) 415 (60) 325 (47) 22
-80 (-112) 338 (49) 290 (42) 18
0 (-18) 325 (47) 283 (41) 17
24 (75) 310 (45) 275 (40) 17
100 (212) 290 (42) 262 (38) 18
150 (300) 235 (34) 215 (31) 20
205 (400) 130 (19) 103 (15) 28
250 (500) 52 (7.5) 35 (5) 60
315 (600) 32 (4.6) 19 (2.7) 85
370 (700) 21 (3) 12 (1.8) 95

Welding of 6061 Aluminum

AL-6061 alloy is easy to weld and connect by various methods. Usually welded with ER4043; For getting the best color matching, ER5356 is recommended.

The following table summarizes common similar metal welded joints made using inertial drive FRW.

Notes:

  • Metal Loss: The total shortening of the workpiece during the welding process.
  • Total Time: The sum of heating time plus welding time.
Inertia-driven friction welding parameters of two 25 mm (1 in.) diameter rods made of similar metals.
Work Metal Spindle Speed, Rev/Min 5700
Aluminium Alloy 6061 Axial Force, KN (lbf x 103) 31 (7)
Flywheel Size, kg·m2 (lb·ft2) 0.13 (3)
Weld Energy, KJ (ft·lbf x 103) 23 (17)
Metal Loss, mm (in.) 3.8 (0.15)
Total Time, s 1

The following table gives parameters used for inertia welding several common dissimilar material combinations.

Note for Axial Force: A force of 22 KN (5000 lbf) is applied during the heating stage of the welding; the force near the end of the weld is subsequently increased to 67 KN (15000 LBF).

Inertia-driven friction welding parameters of two 25 mm (1 in.) diameter rods made of dissimilar metals.
Work Metal Spindle Speed, Rev/Min 5500
Aluminum 6061 to type 302 stainless Axial Force, KN (lbf x 103) 22 (5)
67 (15)
Flywheel Size, kg·m2 (lb·ft2) 0.16 (3.9)
Weld Energy, KJ (ft·lbf x 103) 27 (20)
Metal Loss, mm (in.) 5.1 (0.2)
Total Time, s 3
Effect of welding conditions on the welding strength of AL-6061 alloy
Base metal alloy and temper Thickness, mm (in.) Welding process and conditions As-welded Only aged after welding Postweld solution heat treated and aged
Tensile strength, MPa (ksi) 0.2%, Yield strength, MPa (ksi) Elongation in 51 mm (2 in.), % Tensile strength, MPa (ksi) 0.2%, Yield strength, MPa (ksi) Elongation in 51 mm (2 in.), % Tensile strength, MPa (ksi) 0.2%, Yield strength, MPa (ksi) Elongation in 51 mm (2 in.), %
AL-6061-T6 (4043 Filler) 3.2 (1/8) DCEN GTAW, 15 mm/s (35 in./min) 248 (36) 165 (24) 6 303 (44) 276 (40) 5
AL-6061-T4 (4043 Filler) 3.2 (1/8) DCEN GTAW, 8.5 mm/s (20 in./min) 234 (34) 145 (21) 8 283 (41) 179 (26) 3 303 (44) 276 (40) 5
AL-6061-T6 (4043 Filler) 6.4 (1/4) Automatic GMAW, one pass each side 17 mm/s (40 in./min) 255 (37) 138 (20) 6 296 (43) 276 (40) 5
AL-6061-T4 (4043 Filler) 76 (3) Automatic GMAW, multipass double-V 172 (25) 90 (13) 10 234 (34) 4
AL 6061-T6 (4643 Filler) 76 (3) Automatic GMAW, multipass double-V 186 (27) 97 (14) 13 310 (45) 276 (40) 4
Typical mechanical properties of gas shielded arc welded butt joints in selected heat-treated heat treatable aluminum alloys.
Base alloy and temper Filler alloy As-welded Postweld solution heat treated and aged
Tensile strength 0.2% Yield strength, in 50.8 mm (2 in.) Elongation Tensile strength 0.2% Yield strength, in 50.8 mm (2 in.) Elongation
MPa (ksi) MPa (ksi) Tensile, % in 50.8 mm (2 in.) Free bend, % MPa (ksi) MPa (ksi) Tensile, % in 50.8 mm (2 in.) Free bend, %
AA-6061-T4 4043 186 (27) 124 (18) 8 16 241 (35) ① 165 (24) ① 3 ①
AA-6061-T6 4043 186 (27) 124 (18) 8 16 303 (44) ② 276 (40) ② 5 ② 11 ②
AA-6061-T6 5356 207 (30) 131 (19) 11 25

Notes:

  • ① Postweld artificially aged only.
  • ② For thicknesses greater than 19 mm (3/4 inch), 4643 filler is required.

Heat Treating of Aluminum 6061

Typical Heat Treatments for 6061 Aluminum Alloy Mill Products
Aluminium Alloy Product Solution heat treatment Precipitation heat treatment Temper designation
Metal temperature, °C (°F) Temper designation Metal temperature, °C (°F) Approx. time at temperature, h
AA6061 Sheet 530 (985) T4 160 (320) 18 T6
T42 T62
Plate 530 (985) T4 (tread plate only),
T451
160 (320) 18 T6 (tread plate only),
T651
T42 160 (320) 18 T62
Rolled or Cold finished Wire, Rod & Bar 530 (985) T4,
T3,
T4,
T4,
T451
160 (320), An alternative treatment comprised of 8 hours at 170 (340) also may be used. 18 T6,
T89,
T913,
T94,
T651
T42 T62
Extruded Rod, Bar, Profiles and Tube Quenched directly from the extrusion press. T1 175 8 T51
530 (985) T4,
T4510,
T4511
175 8 T6,
T6510,
T6511
530 (985) T42 175 8 T62
Structural Profiles 530 (985) T4 175 8 T6
Pipe 530 (985) T4 175 8 T6
Drawn Pipe 530 (985) T4 160 18 T6
T42 160 18 T62
Die and Hand Forgings 530 (985) T4 175 8 T6
Rolled Rings 530 (985) T4 175 8 T6
T452 175 8 T652

AA-6061 Annealing

Typical full annealing treatment (O condition): The annealing process is an average process. Heat to 415 °C (775 °F) for 2 to 3 hours, then slowly cool (28 °C/hr) to 260 °C (500 °F). The intermediate annealing for removing cold work should be performed at 343 °C (650 °F). Time and cooling rate are not critical.

6061 Aluminium Aging

6061 aluminium alloy sheets, plates, rolled or cold-rolled wire, rods, bars, and drawn tubing are aged to a metal temperature of 160 °C (320 °F) and maintaining it for 18h. Extruded rods, rods, shapes and tubes; dies and hand forgings, rolled rings are aged to a metal temperature of 175 °C (345 °F) and held for 8 hours.

AL 6061 Alloy Corrosion Resistance

AL 6061 alloy has excellent corrosion resistance to atmospheric conditions and good corrosion resistance to seawater. This alloy also has a good finish and a good reaction to anodic oxidation. However, where appearance is crucial, consider using 6063 alloy.

Typical Applications

Representative applications of 6061 aluminium alloy include aerospace and electrical fixtures, as well as communications. They are also widely used in automated machinery parts, precision machining, mold manufacturing, electronics and precision instruments, SMT, PC board solder carriers, etc.

  • Aerospace: 6061 aluminium alloy can be used to make aircraft skins, fuselage frames, beams, rotors, propellers, fuel tanks, siding and landing gear pillars, as well as rocket forging rings, spacecraft siding, etc.
  • Transportation: 6061 aluminium alloy also used for car, subway car, railway passenger car, high-speed passenger car body structural materials, doors and windows, shelves, automotive engine parts, air conditioners, radiators, body panels, wheels and ship materials.
  • Packaging: Aluminum alloy 6061 is also used as metal packaging materials in the form of thin plates and foils, made into cans, lids, bottles, barrels, packaging foils, which are widely used in packaging of beverages, food, cosmetics, medicines, cigarettes, industrial products, etc.
  • Printing: Mainly used to make PS plates. Aluminum-based PS plates are a new type of material for the printing industry. They are used for automatic plate making and printing.
  • Architectural decoration: alloy 6061 is mainly used in building frames, doors and windows, suspended ceilings, metal curtains, perforated metal sheet, decorative surfaces, etc. Such as various architectural doors and windows, aluminum profiles for curtain walls, aluminum curtain wall panels, profiled panels, checkered panels, color coated aluminum panels, etc.
  • Electronic home appliances: AL-6061 also used in various busbars, wiring, conductors, electrical components, refrigerators, air conditioners, cables and other fields.

6061 Aluminium Alloy Equivalent

Aluminum 6061 equivalent to European EN (German DIN EN, British BSI EN, France NF EN), ISO, Japanese JIS and Chinese GB standard (for reference).

Notes: DIN 1725-1 has been replaced by DIN EN 573-3.

AA-6061 Aluminum Equivalent Material
US European Union Germany China Japan ISO
Standard Grade (UNS) Standard Grade Standard Numerical (Chemical symbols) Norm Aluminum name (material number) Standard Grade Standard Grade Standard Grade
AA;
ASTM B209;
ASTM B211;
ASTM B221;
ASTM B210;
ASTM B308/B308M;
ASTM B241/B241M
6061 (UNS A96061) SAE AMS 4025;
SAE AMS 4026;
SAE AMS 4027;
SAE AMS 4117
6061 EN 573-3 EN AW-6061 (EN AW-AlMg1SiCu) DIN 1725-1 AlMgSi1Cu (3.3211) GB/T 3077;
GB/T 3880.2
6061 JIS H4000;
JIS H4040
6061 ISO 209 AW-6061

Related materials: SAE 5160 Steel, Type 302 Stainless Steel, AISI 904L Stainless Steel, AISI 304 Stainless Steel, SAE 1080 Steel, X5CrNi18-10 (1.4301)

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