2024 Aluminum Properties, Alloy AA2024 2024T3, 2024T351, 2024T4 Sheet, Plate & Tube

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2024 Aluminum Alloy, Aluminium AA2024 2024T3, 2024T351, 2024T4

Aluminum 2024 is one of the highest strength 2xxx alloys, the copper and magnesium are the main elements in this alloy. The most commonly used temper designs include 2024T3, 2024T351, 2024T4, 2024 T6 and 2024T4. The corrosion resistance of 2xxx series alloys is not as good as most other aluminum alloys, and intergranular corrosion may occur under certain conditions. Therefore, these sheet alloys are usually clad with high-purity alloys or 6xxx series magnesium-silicon alloys to provide galvanic protection for the core material, thereby greatly improving corrosion resistance.

2024 aluminium alloy is widely used in the aircraft industry, such as aircraft skin sheet, automotive panels, bulletproof armor, and forged and machined parts.

Alclad 2024 aluminum alloy combines the high strength of Al2024 with the corrosion resistance of a commercial pure cladding. Used in truck wheels, many structural aircraft applications, mechanical gears, screw mechanical products, auto parts, cylinders and pistons, fasteners, mechanical parts, ordnance, entertainment equipment, screws and rivets, etc.

2024 Aluminum Properties

The tables below list 2024 aluminum properties and specifications including chemical composition, physical and mechanical properties, modulus of elasticity, etc.

Chemical Composition

Al 2024 chemical composition is given in the table below.

Aluminum 2024 Chemical Composition, %
Alloy (UNS) Si, ≤ Fe, ≤ Cu Mn Mg Cr Zn, ≤ Ti Other Elements, Each (Total), ≤ Al
2024 (UNS A92024) 0.50 0.50 3.8-4.9 0.30-0.9 1.2-1.8 0.10 0.25 0.15 0.05 (0.15) Remainder

AA 2024 Physical Properties

AA2024 physical properties are listed in the following tables, including aluminum density, melting point, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus (modulus of elasticity), thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, electrical conductivity, and electrical resistance.

Notes:

  • 10-6·K-1 = 10-6/K = 1 μm/m·°C
  • 1 Ω·mm²/m = 1 μΩ·m
  • 1 g/cm3 = 1 kg/dm3 = 1000 kg/m3
  • 1 GPa = 1 kN/mm2
  • 1 MPa = 1 N/mm2
  • MS/m = 0.58⋅% IACS
  • 1 cal/(g.C) = 1 Btu/(lb. F)
Aluminium 2024-T3 Physical Properties
Alloy and Temper Density, g/cm3 (lb/in.3) Specific gravity Melting point, °C (°F) Coefficient of thermal expansion, 10-6/K (μin./in. ·°F) Specific heat capacity, J/kg·K (Btu/lb ·°F) Thermal conductivity, W/m·°C (Btu∙in/h∙ft2∙°F), at 25 °C (77 °F) Electrical conductivity, Equal volume (Equal weight), % IACS, at 20 °C (68 °F) Electrical conductivity, Equal volume (Equal weight), MS/m, at 20 °C (68 °F) Electrical resistivity, Ω·mm2/m (Ω·circ mil/ft), at 20 °C (68 °F)
2024-O 2.78 (0.101) 2.78 500-638 (935-1180) 23.2 (12.9)  at 20-100 °C (68-212 °F) 875 (0.209) at 20 °C (68 °F) 193 (1340) 50 (160) 29 (93) 0.035 (21)
2024-T3, T4, T361 121 (840) 30 (96) 17 (56) 0.058 (35)
2024-T6, T81 , T861 151 (1050) 38 (122) 22 (71) 0.045 (27)

2024-T3 Aluminum Mechanical Properties

Al 2024-T351, 2024T4, 2024T6 2024-T3 aluminum mechanical properties are listed in the tables below including yield strength (yield stress), ultimate tensile strength, shear strength, modulus of elasticity, young’s modulus, etc.

Aluminium 2024-T3 Mechanical Properties – Plate and Sheet
Standard Aluminum Alloy and Temper Specified Thickness, in. Tensile Strength, ksi, ≥, (unless otherwise specified) Yield Strength (0.2 % offset), ksi, ≥ (unless otherwise specified) Elongation in 2 in. or 4xDiameter, ≤, % Bend Diameter Factor, N
ASTM B209; 2024-O 0.010-0.032 ≤32 ≤14 12 0
0.033-0.063 1
0.064-0.128 4
0.129-0.499 6
2024T3 0.008-0.009 63.0 42.0 10 4
0.010-0.020 63.0 12 4
0.021-0.051 63.0 15 5
0.052-0.128 63.0 15 6
0.129-0.249 64.0 15 8
2024-T351 0.250-0.499 64.0 42.0 12
0.500-1.000 63.0 42.0 8
1.001-1.500 62.0 42.0 7
1.501-2.000 62.0 42.0 6
2.001-3.000 60.0 42.0 4
3.001-4.000 57.0 41.0 4
2024-T361 (flat sheet and plate only) 0.020-0.051 67.0 50.0 8 4
0.052-0.062 67.0 50.0 8 8
0.063-0.249 68.0 51.0 9 8
0.250-0.499 66.0 49.0 9
0.5 66.0 49.0 10
2024-T4 (Coiled sheet) 0.010-0.020 62.0 40 12 4
0.021-0.051 15 6
0.052-0.128 15 5
0.129-0.249 15 8
2024-T42 0.010-0.020 62.0 38.0 12 4
0.021-0.051 62.0 15 5
0.052-0.128 62.0 15 6
0.129-0.249 62.0 15 8
0.250-0.499 62.0 12 10
0.500-1.000 61.0 8
1.001-1.500 60.0 7
1.501-2.000 60.0 6
2.001-3.000 58.0 4
2024-T62 0.010-0.499 64.0 50.0 5
0.500-3.000 63.0 50.0 5
T72 0.010-0.249 60.0 46.0 5
T81 0.010-0.249 67.0 58.0 5
T851 0.250-0.499 67.0 58.0 5
0.500-1.000 66.0 58.0 5
1.001-1.499 66.0 57.0 5
T861 0.020-0.062 70.0 62.0 3
0.063-0.249 71.0 66.0 4
0.250-0.499 70.0 64.0 4
0.5 70.0 64.0 4
F 0.250-3.000
ASTM B209  Alclad 2024 O 0.008-0.009 ≤30.0 ≤14 10 0
0.010-0.032 ≤14 12 0
0.033-0.062 ≤14 12 1
0.063-0.249 ≤32.0 ≤14 12 2
0.250-0.499 ≤14 12 3
0.500-1.750 12
 Alclad 2024T3 0.008-0.009 58.0 39.0 10 4
0.010-0.020 59.0 39.0 12 4
0.021-0.040 59.0 39.0 15 4
0.041-0.062 59.0 39.0 15 5
0.063-0.128 61.0 40.0 15 5
0.129-0.249 62.0 40.0 15 8
 Alclad 2024 T351 0.250-0.499 62.0 40.0 12
0.500-1.000 63.0 42.0 8
1.001-1.500 62.0 42.0 7
1.501-2.000 62.0 42.0 6
2.001-3.000 60.0 42.0 4
3.001-4.000 57.0 41.0 4
T361 0.020-0.062 61.0 47.0 8 4
0.063-0.187 64.0 48.0 9 6
0.188-0.249 64.0 48.0 9 8
0.250-0.499 64.0 48.0 9
0.5 66.0 49.0 10
 Alclad 2024 T4 0.010-0.020 58.0 36 12 4
0.021-0.040 58.0 36 15 4
0.041-0.062 58.0 36 15 5
0.063-0.128 61.0 38 15 5
 Alclad 2024 T42 0.008-0.009 55.0 34.0 10 4
0.010-0.020 57.0 34.0 12 4
0.021-0.040 57.0 34.0 15 4
0.041-0.062 57.0 34.0 15 5
0.063-0.128 60.0 36.0 15 5
0.129-0.187 60.0 36.0 15 8
0.188-0.249 60.0 36.0 15 8
0.250-0.499 60.0 36.0 12 10
0.500-1.000 61.0 38.0 8
1.001-1.500 60.0 38.0 7
1.501-2.000 60.0 38.0 6
2.001-3.000 58.0 38.0 4
T62 0.010-0.062 60.0 47.0 5
0.063-0.499 62.0 49.0 5
T72 0.010-0.062 56.0 43.0 5
0.063-0.249 58.0 45.0 5
T81 0.010-0.062 62.0 54.0 5
0.063-0.249 65.0 56.0 5
T851 0.250-0.499 65.0 56.0 5
0.500-1.000 66.0 58.0 5
T861 0.020-0.062 64.0 58.0 3
0.063-0.187 69.0 64.0 4
0.188-0.249 69.0 64.0 4
0.250-0.499 68.0 62.0 4
0.5 70.0 64.0 4
F 0.250-3.000
ASTM B209
1 1/2 % Alclad 2024
O 0.188-0.499 ≤32.0 ≤14 12
0.500-1.750 12
T3 0.188-0.249 63 41 15
T361 0.188-0.249 65 49 9
0.250-0.499 65 48 9
0.5 66 49 10
T351 0.250-0.499 63 41 12
0.500-1.000 63 42 8
1.001-1.500 62 42 7
1.501-2.000 62 42 6
2.001-3.000 60 42 4
3.001-4.000 57 41 4
T42 0.188-0.249 61 37 15
0.250-0.499 61 37 12
0.500-1.000 61 38 8
1.001-1.500 60 38 7
1.501-2.000 60 38 6
2.001-3.000 58 38 4
T62 0.188-0.499 62 49 5
T72 0.188-0.249 59 45 5
T81 0.188-0.249 66 57 5
T851 0.250-0.499 66 57 5
0.500-1.000 66 58 5
T861 0.188-0.249 70 65 4
0.250-0.499 69 63 4
0.5 70 64 4
F 0.250-3.000
ASTM B209
Alclad 1-Side 2024
O 0.008-0.009 ≤31 ≤14 10
0.010-0.062 ≤31 ≤14 12
0.063-0.499 ≤32 ≤14 12
T3 0.010-0.020 61 40 12
0.021-0.062 61 40 15
0.063-0.128 62 41 15
0.129-0.249 63 41 15
T351 0.250-0.499 63 41 12
T361 0.020-0.062 64 48 8
0.063-0.249 66 49 9
0.250-0.499 65 48 9
T42 0.010-0.020 59 35 12
0.021-0.062 59 36 15
0.063-0.249 61 37 15
0.250-0.499 61 37 12
T62 0.010-0.062 62 48 5
0.063-0.499 63 49 5
T72 0.010-0.062 59 45 5
0.063-0.249 64 56 5
T81 0.010-0.062 64 56 5
0.063-0.249 66 57 5
T851 0.250-0.499 66 57 5
T861 0.020-0.062 67 60 3
0.063-0.249 70 65 4
0.250-0.499 69 63 4
0.250-0.499
ASTM B209
1 1/2 % Alclad 1-Side 2024
O 0.188-0.499 ≤32 ≤14 12
T3 0.188-0.249 63 41 15
T351 0.250-0.499 63 41 12
T361 0.188-0.249 66 49 9
0.250-0.499 65 48 9
T42 0.188-0.249 61 37 15
0.250-0.499 61 37 12
T62 0.188-0.499 63 49 5
T72 0.188-0.249 59 45 5
T81 0.188-0.249 66 57 5
T851 0.250-0.499 66 57 5
T861 0.188-0.249 70 65 4
0.250-0.499 69 63 4
F 0.250-0.499
Mechanical Properties – Extruded Bars, Rods, Wire, Profiles, and Tubes
Standard Aluminum Alloy and Temper Specified Diameter or Thickness, in. Area, in2 Tensile Strength, ksi, ≥ Yield Strength (0.2 % offset), ksi, ≥ Elongation in 2 in. or 4xDiameter, ≤, %
ASTM B221 2024-O all all ≤35 ≤19 12
2024-T3, T3510, T3511 ≤0.249 all 57 42 12
0.250-0.749 all 60 44 12
0.750-1.499 all 65 46 10
≥1.5 ≤25 70 52 10
>25, ≤32 68 48 8
T42 ≤0.749 all 57 38 12
0.750-1.499 all 10
≥1.5 ≤25 10
>25, ≤32 8
T81, T8510, T8511 0.050-0.249 all 64 56 4
0.250-1.499 all 66 58 5
≥1.5 ≤32 66 58 5
Mechanical Properties – Extruded Tube
Standard Aluminum Alloy and Temper Specified Diameter or Thickness, in. (mm) Area, in2 (mm2) Tensile Strength, ksi (MPa), ≥ Yield Strength (0.2 % offset), ksi (MPa), ≥ Elongation in 2 in. (50mm) or 4xDiameter, ≤, % Elongation in 5 x Diameter
ASTM B241 2024-O all all ≤35 (240) ≤19 (130) 12 10
T3, T3510, T3511 ≤0.249 (6.30) all 57 (395) 42 (290) 10
0.250-0.749 (6.30-18.00) all 60 (415) 44 (305) 10 9
0.750-1.499 (18-35) all 65 (450) 46 (315) 9
≥1.5 (35.00) ≤25 (16,000) 70 (485) 48 (330) 9
>25, ≤32 (16,000-20,000) 68 (470) 46 (315) 7
T42 ≤0.749 (35.00) all 57 (395) 38 (260) 12 10
0.750-1.499 (18-35) all 9
≥1.5 (35.00) ≤25 (16,000) 9
>25, ≤32 (16,000-20,000) 7
T81, T8510, T8511 0.050-0.249 (1.2-6.3) all 64 (440) 56 (385) 4
0.250-1.499 (6.3-35.0) all 66 (455) 58 (400) 5 4
≥1.5 (35.00) ≤32 (20,000) 66 (455) 58 (400) 4
F all all
Alloy 2024 Mechanical Properties – Drawn Seamless Tubes
Standard Aluminum Alloy and Temper Specified Diameter or Thickness, in. Tensile Strength, ksi, ≥ Yield Strength (0.2 % offset), ksi, ≥ Elongation in 2 in. or 4 x Diameter, min, %
Full-Section Specimen Cut-Out Specimen
ASTM B210 2024-O 0.018-0.500 ≤32.0 ≤15
T3 0.018-0.024 64 42 10
0.025-0.049 64 12 10
0.050-0.259 64 14 10
0.260-0.500 64 16 12
T42 0.018-0.024 64 40 10
0.025-0.049 12 10
0.050-0.259 14 10
0.260-0.500 16 12
Mechanical Properties – Rolled or Cold Finished Bar, Rod, and Wire
Standard Aluminum Alloy and Temper Specified Diameter or Thickness, in. Tensile Strength, ksi, ≥ Yield Strength (0.2 % offset), ksi, ≥ (unless otherwise specified) Elongation in 2 in. or 4xDiameter, ≤, %
ASTM B211 O ≤0.124 ≤35
0.125-8.000 16
T36 ≤ 0.124 69
0.125-0.375 69 52 10
2024-T4 ≤ 0.124 62
0.125-0.499 62 45 10
0.500-4.500 62 42 10
4.501-6.500 62 40 10
6.501-8.000 58 38 10
2024-T42 ≤0.124 62 40 10
0.125-1.000
2024-T351 0.500-6.500 62 45 10
6.501-8.000 62 45 9
T6 ≤0.124 62
0.125-6.500 62 50 5
T62 ≤0.124 60
0.125-6.500 60 46 5
T851 0.500-6.500 66 58 5
Typical Mechanical Properties at Various Temperatures
Alloy and temper Temperature, °C (°F) Ultimate tensile strength, MPa (ksi) 0.2% offset yield strength Elongation in 50 mm (2 in.), %,
2024-T3
(Sheet)
-195 (-320) 585 (85) 425 (62) 18
-80 (-112) 505 (73) 360 (52) 17
-30 (-18) 495 (72) 350 (51) 17
25 (75) 485 (70) 345 (50) 17
100 (212) 455 (66) 330 (48) 16
150 (300) 380 (55) 310 (45) 11
205 (400) 185 (27) 140 (20) 23
260 (500) 75 (11) 60 (9) 55
315 (600) 50 (7.5) 41 (6) 75
370 (700) 34 (5) 28 (4) 100
2024-T4, T351
(plate)
-195 (-320) 580 (84) 420 (61) 19
-80 (-112) 490 (71) 340 (49) 19
-30 (-18) 475 (69) 325 (47) 19
25 (75) 470 (68) 325 (47) 19
100 (212) 435 (63) 310 (45) 19
150 (300) 310 (45) 250 (36) 17
205 (400) 180 (26) 130 (19) 27
260 (500) 75 (11) 60 (9) 55
315 (600) 50 (7.5) 41 (6) 75
370 (700) 34 (5) 28 (4) 100
2024-T6, T651 -195 (-320) 580 (60) 470 (68) 11
-80 (-112) 495 (44) 405 (59) 10
-30 (-18) 485 (42) 400 (58) 10
25 (75) 475 (42) 395 (57) 10
100 (212) 450 (40) 370 (54) 10
150 (300) 310 (34) 250 (36) 17
205 (400) 180 (25) 130 (19) 27
260 (500) 75 (12) 60 (9) 55
315 (600) 50 (7.5) 41 (6) 75
370 (700) 34 (5) 28 (4) 100
2024-T81, T851 -195 (-320) 585 (85) 540 (78) 8
-80 (-112) 510 (74) 475 (69) 7
-30 (-18) 505 (73) 470 (68) 7
25 (75) 485 (70) 450 (65) 7
100 (212) 455 (66) 425 (62) 8
150 (300) 380 (55) 340 (49) 11
205 (400) 185 (27) 140 (20) 23
260 (500) 75 (11) 60 (9) 55
315 (600) 50 (7.5) 41 (6) 75
370 (700) 34 (5) 28 (4) 100
2024-T861 -195 (-320) 635 (92) 585 (85) 5
-80 (-112) 560 (81) 530 (77) 5
-30 (-18) 540 (78) 510 (74) 5
25 (75) 515 (75) 490 (71) 5
100 (212) 485 (70) 460 (67) 6
150 (300) 370 (54) 330 (48) 11
205 (400) 145 (21) 115 (17) 28
260 (500) 75 (11) 60 (9) 55
315 (600) 50 (7.5) 41 (6) 75
370 (700) 34 (5) 28 (4) 100

AA 2024 Aluminum Alloy Equivalent

AA 2024 material equivalent to European EN (German DIN EN, British BSI EN, France NF EN), ISO, Japanese JIS and Chinese GB standard (for reference).

2024 Aluminium Alloy Equivalent
US European Union China Japan ISO
ASTM Standard SAE AMS Grade (UNS) Standard Numerical (Chemical symbols) Standard Grade Standard Grade Standard Grade
ASTM B209,
ASTM B210,
ASTM B211,
ASTM B221,
ASTM B241,
ASTM B316/B316M
SAE 4035, 4037, 4193, 4297, 4120, 4339, 4087, 4088,  4086, 4040, 4041, 4194, 4195, 4279
AMS-QQ-A-250/4,
AMS-QQ-A-225/6,
AMS-QQ-A-200/3,
AMS-A-81596,
AMS-QQ-A-250/5
2024 (UNS A92024) EN 573-3 EN AW-2024
(EN AW-AlCu4Mg1)
GB/T 3190;
GB/T 3880.2
2024 JIS H4000;
JIS H4040
2024 ISO 209 AW-2024

Related materials: Al-6061, AA7075, Aluminum Weight Calculator, Density of Aluminum, Al 5052-H32

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